UK/US govt’s attacked own citizens with chemical and bio-weapons
Governments, no matter who they are act with impunity whilst conducting some of the most horrific acts of violence against the citizens of other nations. The Bush/Blair lies and deceit that attacked a sovereign nation in an illegal war to turn Iraq into a western petrol pump is a more recent example.
You would be forgiven for thinking though that conducting chemical and bio-weapons experiments on the unsuspecting citizens of your own country was the stuff of conspiracy theories – it’s not.
During the Cold War, the British Government used the general public as unwitting biological and chemical warfare guinea pigs on a much greater scale than previously thought, according to new historical research.
The British prime minsters during the cold war era were Clement Atlee, Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden and Harold MacMillan and it goes without saying that they would have been fully aware of these illegal operations, or at least should have.
In more than 750 secret attacks, hundreds of thousands of ordinary Britons were subjected to biological and chemical warfare attacks launched from aircraft, ships and road vehicles.
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Up until now historians had thought that such operations had been much less extensive. The new research, carried out by Ulf Schmidt, Professor of Modern History at the University of Kent, has revealed that British military aircraft dropped thousands of kilos of a chemical of ‘largely unknown toxic potential’ on British civilian populations in and around Salisbury in Wiltshire, Cardington in Bedfordshire and Norwich in Norfolk.
A lady’s powder box was used to hold some of the deadly bacteria dispersed by government scientists in the London Underground in 1964.
HMS Ben Lomond was used in 1948-49 by British government scientists and their North American colleagues to conduct a series of biological weapons trials off the coasts of Antigua and St. Kitts. Some of the tests involved the use of live pathogens such as anthrax and the plague. More than 500 scientists and naval staff were involved
The Americans were just as bad on their own citizens.
One fact many may not know about San Francisco’s fog is that in 1950, the US military conducted a test to see whether it could be used to help spread a biological weapon in a “simulated germ warfare attack.” This was just the start of many such tests around the country that would go on in secret for years.
The test was a success, as Rebecca Kreston explains over at Discover Magazine, and also “one of the largest human experiments in history.” But as she writes, it was also “one of the largest offenses of the Nuremberg Code since its inception.” The code stipulates that “voluntary, informed consent” is required for research participants, and that experiments that might lead to death or disabling injury are unacceptable.
Back in Britain – Substantial quantities of toxic material was dispersed across parts of the English Channel and the North Sea. It’s still not known the extent to which coastal towns in England and France were affected.
The research reveals, for the first time, that around 4600 kilos of the chemical, zinc cadmium sulphide (potentially carcinogenic, on account of its cadmium content) were dispersed from ships, aircraft and moving lorries.
In America, a Navy vessel used giant hoses to spray a fog of two kinds of bacteria, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii out into the fog, where they disappeared and spread over the city. 800,000 people breathed in its toxic concoction. People became ill and died. The following medical reports and published papers of illnesses and deaths caused by the bacterial outbreak made the government cover-up its actions.
“It was noted that a successful biological warfare attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas,” concluded a later-declassified military report, cited by the Wall Street Journal.
Over the next 20 years, the military would conduct 239 “germ warfare” tests over populated areas, according to news reports from the 1970s (after the secret tests had been revealed) in The New York Times, Washington Post, Associated Press and other publications, and also detailed in congressional testimony from the 1970s.
These tests included the large-scale releases of bacteria in the New York City subway system, on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, and in National Airport just outside Washington, D.C.
In a 1994 congressional testimony, Cole said that none of this had been revealed to the public until a 1976 newspaper story revealed the story of a few of the first experiments — though at least a Senate subcommittee had heard testimony about experiments in New York City in 1975, according to a 1995 Newsday report.
The US government claims it is immune from deaths related to any secret government tests on the public. The British government will always hide behind its shield of national security and admit nothing.
One can only imagine having returned from a global war, where you or your relatives fought for the principles of democracy, came back to rebuild a shattered economy and infrastructure along with a traumatised population only to be subjected to a chemical weapons attack by your own government.
It only took a few years after the end of a World War for the U.S. and UK to break the Nuremberg code. Can you even begin to imagine what it is willing to do in 2015 with the current crop of mindbogglingly unethical, corrupt politicians in power? And that goes for both sides of the Atlantic.